In these situations, I often divide the class into two large sections and assign one topic to each section. We discuss three key developmental transitions toward more flexible behavior. Even adults can find it easier to rely on reactive or externally-driven control ;. If I am misread, the problem lies with the writing, not with the reader. Statistical language learning: Mechanisms and constraints.
What sorts of procedures would early farmers have used? Active versus latent representations: A neural network model of perseveration, dissociation, and decalage. These timely, cutting-edge articles allow instructors to bring their students real-world perspective-from a reliable source-about today's most current and pressing issues in cognitive science. First, children develop an increasing ability to overcome habits by engaging cognitive control in response to environmental signals. These timely, cutting-edge articles allow instructors to bring their students real-world perspective-from a reliable source-about today's most current and pressing issues in cognitive science. C Representations compete with one another via inhibitory connections red t-bars , allowing the most active, goal-appropriate representations to win out over alternatives e.
Explaining the many varieties of working memory variation: Dual mechanisms of cognitive control. It opened a window into the culture and customs of ancient Egypt. Second, children shift from recruiting cognitive control reactively, as needed in the moment, to recruiting cognitive control proactively, in preparation for needing it. Why won't you do what I want? Longitudinal evidence for functional specialization of the neural circuit supporting working memory in the human brain. Archaeologists have observed several artifacts that confirm this transition from hunting and gathering to farming. As children develop increasingly abstract representations, these should help them to control and sequence their own behavior without strong environmental support.
Strongly representing a new abstract rule such as shape as flexibly-switching children are thought to do should speed the processing of thoughts and behaviors related to shape, and allow this rule to be applied to novel shapes. Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. For example, infants gradually become better at maintaining concrete information, such as a toy's new hiding location, over delays and distractions. Second, although children who perseverate seem dramatically stuck on old behaviors e. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. The benefit of additional opinions.
All together now: When dissociations between knowledge and action disappear. The rocky road from actions to intentions. Because terrestrial sleep enhances sleep quality, how might that help us understand differences in the psychology of early humans who did versus did not make the transition to terrestrial sleeping? Abstract representations provide top-down support for relevant category members, making it easier to select a response. Self-directed control in other contexts e. When children are provided with subcategories designed to induce the use of abstract representations e.
Making Working Memory Work: A Computational Model of Learning in the Frontal Cortex and Basal Ganglia. Oxford University Press; Oxford: 2007. Situation models: The mental leap into imagined worlds. But our seemingly dim-witted friend finds it incomprehensible Newton, 1990. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Making Group Brainstorming More Effective: Recommendations from an Associative Memory Perspective.
Multiple processes in prospective memory retrieval: factors determining monitoring versus spontaneous retrieval. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Current Directions in Psychological Science. For example, even infants have been viewed as proactively maintaining goal-relevant information e. We adults, too, can easily overestimate the extent to which others share our understandings.
Much as Norwegians can tell Norwegian jokes to one another, so the hearing-loss community laughs over its own faux pas, as in the story of the three golfers with hearing loss. Mechanistic accounts of frontal lobe development. Basic Books; New York: 1954. Similarly, infants may have sufficiently robust active maintenance of concrete representations e. The Projective Way of Knowing: A Useful Heuristic That Sometimes Misleads. Perspective taking as egocentric anchoring and adjustment. The Mentality of Apes Revisited.
We had a good laugh. Inattentional Blindness: Looking Without Seeing. Good-enough Representations In Language Comprehension. . Maximal performance requires clustering producing words within semantic subcategories and switching shifting between subcategories. Children's ability to shift from old habits can also be dramatically improved by scaffolding them to build up new habits e. A unified framework for inhibitory control.
Exploring a developmental knowledge-action dissociation in a speech interpretation task. The Confidence of Eyewitnesses in Their Identifications from Lineups. Increasingly abstract representations support selection from among options, by providing top-down support for a limited pool of competitors. The list of ways in which humans perceive or believe incorrectly goes on. Although robust representations y-axis could be viewed as most critical for proactive control, and abstract representations x-axis could be viewed as most critical for self-directed control, developments in both aspects of goal representation support increasingly proactive, self-directed control as shown along the diagonal, and discussed in the Variability Across Tasks section.