Advances in technology in the area of both quantification of bone density change and standardization of radiographs have increased the reliability of this diagnostic tool; however, no universally accepted measure for bone density change has been adopted. Adherence usually declines if the regimen involves pain, discomfort, or inconvenience. Erythroplakias occur more frequently in older men and are found on the lateral border of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, the retromolar pad, and on the soft palate Figure 3-10. Integrating Preventive Strategies into Clinical Practice Welcome to Elsevier Inspection Copy A website exclusively for lecturers looking for Elsevier health science textbooks to complement their courses. Dental caries is caused by the interrelationship of multiple factors over time Figure 1-1. Because periodontal disease is multifactorial, we must also consider the impact of lifestyle behaviors, systemic and genetic determinants, and social and cultural factors in this causal framework. Guiding principles, learning objectives, vocabulary terms, and chapter summaries help you study more efficiently and reinforce your understanding of the most important concepts.
The lamina dura serves to anchor the periodontal ligament fibers. Goal setting can be a simple statement. Eddy greater risk for disease and validate the importance of routine prevention. Code X is used for an edentulous sextant. B, Original art by Mr. In all cases, an assessment of treatment urgency is noted.
Identifies barriers, oral health care needs, and preventive strategies for special populations such as children, the elderly, and the physically or mentally disabled. After drying, the strips are examined and the bacterial species are identified at 10× microscopic magnification. A study by Kite et al. In response to the insult, plasma cells and lymphocytes produce IgG specific to the invading organism. Prevention in Clinical Oral Health Care is divided into sections that allow the reader and the student to examine and adopt a methodology for prescribing prevention for the individual patient based on their needs and health history. The rule is that you must floss daily before bedtime.
The prevalence of destructive periodontal disease has remained fairly stable over time, but as the population in the United States shifts to a more mature population, an increase in the number of cases is certainly anticipated. Thus, information should be easily read, understood, and acted on the first time it is read. People remember approximately 20% of what they hear, 10% of what they read, and 30% of what they see. Following the framework outlined in the Clinical Prevention and Population Health,7 this book attempts to advance the science in clinical prevention and to use evidence-based methods to provide a basis for prevention education. Continuous evaluation and follow-up based on periodic reassessment and attention to feedback mechanisms will ensure patient success. However, advances in science continually improve our understanding of the epidemiology of and risk factors for oral conditions, and their importance to the overall health and well being of patients and populations.
Dental professionals are bound to provide the best service options for those persons under their care. These elements are defined in Table 11-1. Because the epidemiologic assessment must be performed quickly, a visual-tactile method is generally used to identify dental caries. Exophytic, papillary mass of the buccal mucosa. Although the incidence of these cancers increased substantially between 1973 and 2003, the incidence of cancers of the lip, floor of the mouth, and gingiva has shown a marked decline Table 3-4. Discusses risk-based approaches to prevent problems such as caries, periodontal disease, and oral cancer. For example, the concept of risk-based prevention is submitted as an evidence based concept.
An additional 150 questions that correspond to existing and new expanded functions in certain states ensure that you are prepared for exam success in any state you wish to practice. Schulman and Cara Brigham Gonzales. The index is calculated as the number of root surfaces that are decayed or filled, divided by the number of surfaces exposed because of gingival recession surfaces with loss of attachment. The presence of oral leukoplakia in a non-smoker should trigger clinicians to suspect that the lesion has a high malignant potential and to perform a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. Verbal and nonverbal communication are equally important in patient education and can occur simultaneously. The strongest evidence for an association with periodontal disease is between diabetes both type 1 and type 2. Smokers of more than 10 cigarettes per day had decreased prevalence of gingivitis than subjects who smoked 10 or fewer cigarettes per day.
Prevention Strategies for Oral Components of Systemic Conditions 19. Therefore, the proliferation of these organisms can be linked to the formation of a carious lesion. Motivating a patient to change behavior requires an assessment of both current behavior and willingness to change or adopt a new specific behavior. The patient is first asked to expectorate into a graduated, plastic tube with a conical base graduated to 0. The role of the professional school in the milieu of patient, provider and third-party is to train the oral health provider to integrate prevention into the overall care plan and to evaluate preventive strategies in health.
The measurement of periodontal disease is determined through a complete clinical examination and the measurement of the clinical attachment level around each tooth. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geographic Variation Caries prevalence varies substantially worldwide Figure 1-6 with a greater than fourfold difference between the areas of highest and lowest prevalence. Distinctions between mild, moderate, and severe are made on the basis of a histological examination. Thus, an effective message is one that includes a sender, a receiver, and a mechanism for feedback. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Because of this unpredictable progression, biopsy of suspect lesions is essential to managing precancerous and cancerous lesions.
How can communication skills be tailored to meet the needs of dental clinical settings? Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health. Therefore, the tools described in the text that follows are not meant to be sufficiently sensitive to diagnose dental caries, but are intended to describe the extent of disease in a given population at a defined point in time. The most frequently referenced measure of supragingival plaque is the Plaque Index or PlI. Public Health Nutr 8:657-665, 2005. The Western United States has a lower prevalence of caries.