He resigned in 1971 to protest the government's continuation of military rule, and in 1975, following the overthrow of the Gowon government, issued a press release questioning the country's military spending. He believed that the state should channel Nigeria's resources into education and state-led infrastructural development. He died in Ikenné on May 9, 1987. He supported limited public ownership and limited central planning in government. In 1954 he became the first premier of the Western Region, on which occasion he was awarded an honorary chieftaincy.
Excluded from National government, the position of Awolowo and his party became increasingly precarious. He was equally regarded by most Hausa-Fulani politicians as the major threat to the ethno-religious hegemony of their people in Nigeria. In 1944 he completed a University of London correspondence course for the bachelor of commerce degree. I found what I needed easily and the prices can't be beaten and the books arrived in a timely manner. Non of his political rivals could match or beat in political organization and management. He was the official Leader of the Opposition to the Balewa Government from 1959 to 1963 after he had left the Western Region to contest elections to the prime ministership of Nigeria at the centre. Author: Obafemi Awolowo Publisher: Cambridge : University Press, ©1960.
Awolowo continued to serve the government as commisioner of finance and vice chairman of the Federal Executive Council throughout the years of Nigeria's civil war with Biafra 1967-1970. He attended various schools, and then became a teacher Abeokuta, after which he qualified as a shorthand typist. This situation led to a power struggle within the party which ultimately erupted in 1962 in disturbances in the Western Region House of Assembly. In 1945 he wrote his first book, Path to Nigerian Freedom, in which he was highly critical of British policies of indirect administration and called for rapid moves toward self- government and Africanization of administrative posts in Nigeria. There is a not-so-visible achievement arising from all these. Maintaining that Nigeria had no reason to be poor, the Afenifere chieftain lamented that the hardship experienced across the country can be traced to the inefficiencies of those in power, even as political parties are no longer accountable to the masses.
In 1979 and 1983 he ran for president as the candidate for the of Nigeria, losing to Shehu Shagari. Awolowo began work on this autobiography in 1957, at a time when Nigeria's request for self-government had been refused. Controversially, and at considerable expense, he introduced free primary education for all in the Western Region, established the first television service in Africa in 1959,and the Oduduwa Group of which the highly lucrative cocoa industry which was the mainstream of the regional economy. The Action Group's platform called for immediate termination of British rule in Nigeria and for development of various public welfare programs, including universal primary education, increase of health services in rural areas, diversification of the Western Regional economy, and democratization of local governments. Political Career During his residence in London, Awolowo moved to a position of prominence in the struggle for Nigerian independence. In 1966, however, an attempted coup d'etat led to the suspension of the Nigerian federal constitution and the empowerment of a military government which promised a new constitution. In 1959, confident of an Action Group victory in the federal elections, Awolowo resigned the premiership to stand for election to the federal House of Representatives.
Accordingly, this autobiography is dedicated to a 'new and free Nigeria', with the trust that its people will enjoy 'a more abundant life'. . Further Reading The most thorough treatment of Awolowo's life is his Awo: An Autobiography of Chief Obafemi Awolowo 1960. In 1959, confident of an Action Group victory in the federal elections, Awolowo resigned the premiership to stand for election to the federal House of Representatives. The federal government intervened and suspended the regional constitution. He also outlined the successful history of the Action Group and was optimistic of Nigerian independence. Also in 1945 in London, he helped found the Egbe Omo Oduduwa Society of the Descendants of Oduduwa, the mythical ancestor of the Yoruba-speaking peoples , an organization devoted to the study and preservation of Yoruba culture.
However, his most important bequests styled Awoism are his exemplary integrity, his welfarism, his contributions to hastening the process of decolonisation and his consistent and reasoned advocacy of federalism-based on ethno-linguistic self-determination and uniting politically strong states-as the best basis for Nigerian unity. This determined, self-made leader here describes his youth, education and politics. In 1945 he wrote his first book, Path to Nigerian Freedom, in which he was highly critical of British policies of indirect administration and called for rapid moves toward self-government and Africanization of administrative posts in Nigeria. Despite his interest in business ventures, Awolowo wanted to continue his formal education. Commending the author for his patriotism, honesty and integrity, the Asiwaju of Lagos, Bola Ahmed Tinubu, described the author as a great leader while crediting his success as Lagos State governor to Chief Adebanjo. Although he praised the Federal Military Government for creating a 12-state federal system in 1967, he predicted further political difficulties because these states had not been based on ethnic and linguistic affinities.
This was attained in 1960 following early home rule for the people of the Western Region which Awolowo secured in 1957. This determined, self-made leader here describes his youth, education and politics. His organizational and political inclinations became evident as he moved to high-level positions in the Nigerian Motor Transport Union, the Nigerian Produce Traders' Association, the Trades Union Congress of Nigeria, and the Nigerian Youth Movement, of which he became Western Provincial secretary. Awolowo died peacefully at his Ikenne home, the Efunyela Hall so named after his mother , on 9 May 1987, at the age of 78 and was laid to rest in Ikenne, amid tributes across political and ethno-religious divides. He received his early education in the mission schools of Ikenné, Abeokuta, and Ibadan. Sklar, Nigerian Political Parties: Power in an Emergent African Nation 1963. This determined, self-made leader here describes his youth, education and politics.
A constitutional crisis led to the declaration of a state of emergency in the Western Region, eventually resulting in a widespread breakdown of law and order. During his tenure as leader and premier, he held the regional ministerial portfolios of local government, finance, and economic planning. New York Times May 11, 1987. In 1959, confident of an Action Group victory in the federal elections, Awolowo resigned the premiership to stand for election to the federal. Bayo, Nigeria in Search of a Stable Civil-Military System Westview Press, 1981.
When normal government was restored, the Akintola faction had won; Akintola and his followers withdrew from the Action Group to form the Nigerian National Democratic party, which governed Western Nigeria until 1966. Oil, Politics and Violence: Nigeria's Military Coup Culture 1966-1976. Chief Obafemi Awolowo 1909-1987 was the leader of Nigeria's Action Group party and the first indigenous Premier of Western Nigeria. His father was a farmer and sawyer who died when Obafemi was only seven years old. Often he worked at odd jobs to raise money for tuition fees, and his entrepreneurial spirit continued to express itself in the various careers which he subsequently sampled: journalist, teacher, clerk, moneylender, taxidriver, produce broker. In 1963 Awolowo was found guilty of conspiring to overthrow the government of Nigeria and was sentenced to ten years of imprisonment.