She is a form of Devi, the general earth-goddess. Subcaste and title of Teli and Khairwar; title of the leader of the Bhuiya caste. Ploughing was probably despised as a form of manual labour, and hence an undignified action for a member of the aristocracy, just as a squire or gentleman farmer in England might consider it beneath his dignity to drive the plough himself. Another subcaste of the Kunbis called Mānwa is derived from the Māna tribe. They appear to belong to different clans, but many of them are Bais Rajputs. No definite rule prescribed that the children of such unions should necessarily be illegitimate, and in many cases no doubt seems to exist that, if not they themselves, their descendants at any rate ultimately became full members of the caste of the first ancestor.
In 1911 they numbered 38,000 persons in the Provinces, being distributed over all Districts and States. He receives presents in the name of the dead man, and takes the red cloth with which the corpse is covered. The fact that there may be several castes practising such important callings as agriculture or weaving does not invalidate this in any way, and instances of the manner in which such castes have been developed will be given subsequently. Also a sept of Basor, Bhatra, Bhuiya, Dewar, Kawar and Parja. Nesfield puts forward the view that the whole basis of the caste system is the division of occupations, and that the social gradation of castes corresponds precisely to the different periods of civilisation during which their traditional occupations originated. The castes of village and household menials form a large group between the cultivators on the one hand and the impure and servile labourers on the other. The ritual is performed by the priests and the lay wors.
The third group contains those castes from whose hands a Brahman will not take water; but their touch does not convey impurity and they are permitted to enter Hindu temples. Many of them live by petty thieving and cheating. Just as the village has a priest of the non-Aryan tribes for propitiating the local gods, so the Rajput chief at his accession was often inducted to the royal cushion by a Bhil or Mina, and received the badge of investiture as if he had to obtain his title from these tribes. The Sansia or stone-mason of the Uriya country may perhaps also be included. The higher castes constituted a fraternity into which admission was obtained only by a religious ceremony of initiation and investment with the sacred thread. The author is indebted to Sir J.
In 1905 the bulk of the District of Sambalpur, with five Feudatory States inhabited by an Uriya-speaking population, were transferred to Bengal and afterwards to the new Province of Bihar and Orissa, while five Feudatory States of Chota Nagpur were received from Bengal. The former territory had been for some years included in the scope of the Ethnographic Survey, and is shown coloured in the annexed map of linguistic and racial divisions. Next above these come the fishing castes, fishing being considered somewhat superior to hunting, because water is a more sacred element among Hindus than land, and there is less apparent cruelty in the capturing of fish than the slaughtering of animals; these are the Kahars, Kewats, Dhimars and others. When the conquering race began to settle in the land, the indigenous tribes, or such of them as did not retire before the invaders into the still unconquered interior, became a class of menials and labourers, as the Amalekites were to the children of Israel. Jain ascetics with cloth before mouth and sweeping-brush 224 14. The well-known traditional theory of caste is that the Aryans were divided from the beginning of time into four castes: Brāhmans or priests, Kshatriyas or warriors, Vaishyas or merchants and cultivators, and Sūdras or menials and labourers, all of whom had a divine origin, being born from the body of Brahma—the Brāhmans from his mouth, the Kshatriyas from his arms, the Vaishyas from his thighs, and the Sudras from his feet. In a number of castes the majority of members have abandoned their traditional occupation and taken to others.
A section of Binjhwar and Koli. Most of the important Bania subcastes belonged originally to Rājputāna and Central India, which are also the homes of the Rājpūts, and reasons have been given in the article on Bania for holding that they are derived from the Rājpūts. The history of the Central Provinces affords considerable support to the view that the Gond immigration occurred at a comparatively late period, perhaps in the ninth or tenth century, or even later, after a considerable part of the Province had been governed for some centuries by Rajput dynasties. The population of Chhattisgarh thus constitutes to some extent a distinct social organism, which retained until quite recently many remnants of primitive custom. And among the families of ruling Rājpūt chiefs, when a daughter of the house is married, it was customary to send with her a number of handmaidens taken from the menial and serving castes. But hand-spinning is now practically an extinct industry and the Katias have taken to weaving or ordinary manual labour for a subsistence. The names of all three castes denote their functional origin, Gadaria being from gādar, a sheep, Dhangar from dhan or small-stock, the word signifying a flock of sheep or goats and also wealth; and Kuramwār from kurri, the Telugu word for sheep.
The Garpagari, or hail-averter, is a regular village menial, his duty being to avert hail-storms from the crops, like the qalazof'ulax in ancient Greece. The suggested conclusion from the above argument is that the main body of the Aryan immigrants, that is the Vaishyas, settled down in villages by exogamous clans or septs. An honorific title of Uriya Brahmans. The higher group includes those castes whose occupations were coeval with the age of metallurgy, that is, those who work in stone, wood and metals, and who make clothing and ornaments, as the Barhai or worker in wood, the Lohār or worker in iron, the Kasera and Thathera, brass-workers, and the Sunār or worker in the precious metals, ranking precisely in this order of precedence, the Sunār being the highest. A surname of Karhara Brahmans in Saugor.
In 1911 less than a tenth of the population of India was urban, and nearly three-quarters of the total were directly supported by agriculture. Nevertheless, the Gond labourers in Hindu villages in the plains are more despised than the Gonds who live in their own villages in the hill country. But they also supplied leaf-plates for festivals, and were village musicians and trumpeters in the Maratha armies, and hence probably ranked below the cultivators and were supported by contributions of grain from them. The Bahnas or cotton-cleaners have entirely lost their occupation, as cotton is now cleaned in factories; they are cartmen or cultivators, but retain their caste name and organisation. None of them have adopted a Dravidian language, but all speak corrupt forms of the ancient Aryan vernaculars derived from Sanskrit. The god Rama, an incarnation of Vishnu, with attendant deities 144 9. As stated by Sir H.
The second and third of these names closely resemble those of the corresponding Hindu classical castes, the Rājanya or Kshatriya and the Vaishya, while Athornan, the name for a priest, is the same as Atharvan, the Hindu name for a Brāhman versed in the Atharva-Veda. In the Central Provinces the most common is Khermata, that is the goddess of the village itself or the village lands. The same is the case, though to a less degree, with the Rautias of Chota Nagpur, a military caste mainly formed from the Kol tribe. At a betrothal in the great Kunbi cultivating caste of the Marāthas, the services of the barber and washerman must be requisitioned. They were a hostile race, but the hostility was felt and expressed on religious rather than racial grounds, as the latter term is understood at present.
Situated in the centre of the Indian Peninsula, between lat. They make and sell ornaments of brass and bell-metal, such as are worn by the lower castes, and travel from village to village, hawking their toe-rings and anklets. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity individual or corporate has a copyright on the body of the work. One special caste may be noticed here, the Vidurs, who are the descendants of Brahman fathers by women of other castes. Drums and tom-toms made from the hides of animals are also impure. Subcaste of Ganda, Gondhali, Bahrupia.